субота, березня 22, 2014

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Багатозначні слова: дієслово run

Нещодавно я писала про кількість слів, які необхідно знати, щоб володіти англійською мовою. Там я зачепила таку тему, як багатозначні слова. Більшість слів в англійській мові – багатозначні. Деякі із найбільш уживаних слів налічують до 100 чи навіть більше значень.
Візьмімо для прикладу слово “run”. Згідно словнику Dictionary.com, воно має 179 значень (!!!), в той час як “go”  - 98 значень. Ілюстрація нижче – це іконографіка, створена  групою Kaplan International при співпраці з Dictionary.com, на якій зображено 10 найбагатозначніших англійських слів. Ориганал іконографіки можна переглягути на сайті Kaplan.



На прохання деяких своїх учнів та читачів я почала робити стислі конспекти таких багатозначних слів із першими 18 значеннями, які вживаються найчастіше. Сьогоднішній допис буде про дієслово “run”.







move quickly with legs – бігати, бігти

He ran home in tears to his mother.
The boys ran off into the crowd.
 

control/organize/manage – керувати, контролювати, організувати, вести

He has no idea how to run a bar
a badly run company
state-run industries
Stop trying to run my lifefor me.
to run a hotel/store/language school
The college runs summer courses for foreign students.
 

work (of machines) – працювати (про машини чи двигуни)

Does your car run on petrol or diesel?
Stan had the chainsaw running.
Could you run the engine for a moment?
 

flow (of liquids) – текти, струменіти, литися

Blood ran from a wound in her leg.
Tears were running down his face.
running water
His back was running with sweat.
I'll run a bath for you. I'll run you a bath.
 

travel (vehicle ) – ходити (про транспорт), відправляти(ся) по маршруту

This shuttle runs at weekends
The train was running twenty minutes late.
I'll run you there, it's no trouble.
Shall I run you home?
Buses to Oxford run every half-hour.
They run extra trains during the rush hour.
 

move or pass into/down/through etc – рухатися, їхати

The truck ran down the hill and into a shop window.
The sledge ran smoothly over the frozen snow.
 

reach amount/rate – досягнути, продаватися за

Inflation was running at 26%.
Ticket prices were running anywhere from £50 to £200.
 

move on the surface – провести (чимось) по (поверхні)

Fred ran his fingers gently through her hair.
She ran her fingers along the carved figurine.
In a fit of jealousy, he ran a key down the side of Greg's car.
Run the scanner over the barcodes.
He ran his eyes over her body.
 

exist in certain place – проходитися, пролягати (про фізичні об´єкти)

There was a path running through the middle of the forest.
He had a scar running down his left cheek.
The road runs parallel to the river.
A mountain range runs parallel to the western border.
 

have feeling/thought – відчути, спадати (на думку)

A chill ran through me (=I suddenly felt frightened).
Our thoughts seem to run along the same lines (=we think the same).
The thought that she might be lying ran through my mind.
 

broadcast, continue to be shown etc – іти (по ТБ), показувати, транслювати(ся)

This soap opera has been running for many years
How long did the film run for?
The series ran for 20 episodes and was extremely popular.

print (in newspaper) – друкувати, опубліковувати

On advice from their lawyers they decided not to run the story.
The company is running a series of advertisements in national newspapers.
 

continue (for some time) - тривати

Her last musical ran for six months on Broadway.
This debate will run and run!
The permit runs for three months.
The lease on my house only has a year left to run.
 

run+ adjective: be/become – ставати (яким)

The river ran dry during the drought.
Supplies are running low.
We've run short of milk.
You've got your rivals running scared.
 

try to be elected – балотуватися, виставляти свою кандидатуру (на виборах)

run for - виставляти свою кандидатуру на посаду …


Jackson announced his intention to run for president.


run against - виставляти свою кандидатуру проти …


There will be three candidates running against her.
 

spread (of liquid/colour) – розтектися, линяти

Crying had made her mascara run.
The colour ran and made all my underwear pink.
 

move someone/something illegally - провозити контрабандою

We know of several groups who are running drugs into the country.
He used to run guns across the border.
 

happen/say – казати, протікати (про розмову)

The text ran something like this: 'Don't mess with our business!'
Their argument ran something like this…

Ви також можете завантажити проілюстрований буклет із цими значеннями за посиланням  17 значень дієслова RUN